Al-Ali S, Wall F, Fitzpatrick R, Broom-Fendley S, Rollinson G, Brady A, Pickles J, Williams A, Dawes W. 2020. Key process mineralogy parameters for rare earth fluorcarbonate-bearing carbonatite deposits: the example of Songwe Hill, Malawi, Minerals Engineering, 159, DOI:10.1016/j.mineng.2020.106617.

Anenburg M, Mavrogenes J, Frigo C, Wall F. 2020. Rare earth element mobility in and around carbonatites controlled by sodium, potassium and silica, Science Advances, 6, eabb6570-eabb6570, DOI:10.1126/sciadv.abb6570.

Borst, A M, Smith, M P, Finch, A A, Estrade, G, Villanova-de-Benavent, C, Nason, P, Marquis, E, Horsburgh, N J, Goodenough, K M, Xu, C, Kynický, J. & Geraki, K. 2020. Adsorption of rare earth elements in regolith-hosted clay deposits Nature Communications. 11, 4386.

Wall F, Pell R. 2020. Responsible sourcing of rare earths: Exploration-stage intervention including life cycle assessment, Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, DOI:10.1016/bs.hpcre.2020.10.001.


Borst, A M, Finch, A A, Friis, H, Horsburgh, N J, Gamaletsos, P N, Goettlicher, J, Steininger, R & Geraki, K. 2019. Structural State of Rare Earth Elements in Eudialyte-Group Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 1-49.

Broom-Fendley S, Smith M P, Andrade M B, Ray S, Banks D A, Loye E, Atencio D, Pickles JR, Wall F. 2019. Sulfur-bearing monazite-(Ce) from the Eureka carbonatite, Namibia: oxidation state, substitution mechanism, and formation conditions, Mineralogical Magazine, pages 1-14, DOI:10.1180/mgm.2019.79

Cangelosi, D, Broom-Fendley, S, Banks, D, Morgan, D, Yardley, B. 2019. LREE redistribution during hydrothermal alteration at the Okorusu carbonatite complex, Namibia. Mineralogical Magazine, 1-54.

Estrade, G, Marquis, E, Smith, M, Goodenough, K M, Nason, P. 2019. REE concentration processes in ion adsorption deposits: Evidence from the Ambohimirahavavy alkaline complex in Madagascar. Ore Geology Reviews 112,

Pell R, Tijsseling L, Palmer LW, Glass H, Yan X, Wall F, Zeng X, Li J. 2019. Environmental optimisation of mine scheduling through life cycle assessment integration, Resources, Conservation and Recycling Volume 142, 267-276.

Pell R, Wall F, Yan X, Li J, Zeng X. 2019. Mineral processing simulation based-environmental life cycle assessment for rare earth project development: a case study on the Songwe Hill project. Journal of Environmental Management.

Pell R, Wall F, Yan X, Li J, Zeng X. 2019. Temporally explicit life cycle assessment as an environmental performance decision making tool in rare earth project development, Minerals Engineering, volume 135, pages 64-73, DOI:10.1016/j.mineng.2019.02.043.

van de Ven, M A J, Borst, A M, Davies, G R, Hunt, E J, Finch, A A. 2019. Hydrothermal Alteration of Eudialyte-Hosted Critical Metal Deposits: Fluid Source and Implications for Deposit Grade. Minerals 9(7), 422,


Al-Ali S, Wall F, Sheridan R, Pickles J, Pascoe R. 2018. Magnetic properties of REE fluorcarbonate minerals and their implications for minerals processing, Minerals Engineering, volume 131, pages 392-397, DOI:10.1016/j.mineng.2018.11.042.

Barnett, M J, Palumbo-Roe, B, Gregory, S P. 2018. Comparison of Heterotrophic Bioleaching and Ammonium Sulfate Ion Exchange Leaching of Rare Earth Elements from a Madagascan Ion-Adsorption Clay. Minerals 8(6), 236

Borst, A M, Waight, T E, Finch, A A, Storey, M and Le Roux, P J. 2018. Dating agpaitic rocks: A multi-system (U/Pb, Sm/Nd, Rb/Sr and 40Ar/39Ar) isotopic study of layered nepheline syenites from the Ilímaussaq complex, Greenland. Lithos

Owens, C L, Nash, G R Hadler, K, Fitzpatrick, R S, Anderson, C G, Wall, F. 2018.Zeta potentials of the rare earth element fluorcarbonate minerals focusing on bastnäsite and parisite. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 256, 152–162.

Pell R, Wall F, Yan X, Bailey G. 2018. Applying and advancing the economic resource scarcity potential (ESP) method for rare earth elements, Resources Policy, DOI:10.1016/j.resourpol.2018.10.003.

Richter, L, Diamond, L W, Atanasova, P, Banks, D A, and Gutzmer, J. 2018. Hydrothermal formation of heavy rare earth element (HREE)– xenotime deposits at 100°C in a sedimentary basin. Geology, Volume 46, Number 3.

Safaa, A A, Wall, F, Sheridan, R, Pickles, J, Pascoe, R. 2018. Magnetic properties of REE fluorcarbonate minerals and their implications for minerals processing. Minerals Engineering, Volume 131, 15 January 2019, 392-397.

Smith M, Kynicky J, Chen Xuc, Wenlei Song, Spratt J, Jeffries T, Brtnicky M, Kopriva A, Cangelosi D. 2018. The origin of secondary heavy rare earth element enrichment in carbonatites: Constraints from the evolution of the Huanglongpu district, China. Lithos, 308–309, 65–82

Wall F. 2018. Keynote lecture: Common problems - and progress towards solutions - in the process mineralogy of rare earths, Process Mineralogy '18, Cape Town, South Africa, 19th - 21st Nov 2018.


Broom-Fendley, S, Brady, A, Horstwood, M, Woolley, A, Mtegha, J, Wall, F, Gunn A G. 2017. Geology, geochemistry and geochronology of the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi, Journal of African Earth Sciences, DOI:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.05.020.

Broom-Fendley, S, Brady, A, Wall, F, Gunn, G, Dawes, W. 2017 REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite, Ore Geology Reviews, 81, 23–41

Broom-Fendley, S, Wall, F, Spiro, B, Ullmann, C V. 2017. Deducing the source and composition of rare earth mineralising fluids in carbonatites: insights from isotopic (C, O, 87Sr/86Sr) data from Kangankunde, Malawi, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 172, 96

Goodenough, K M, Wall, F, and Merriman, D. 2017. The Rare Earth Elements: Demand, Global Resources, and Challenges for Resourcing Future Generations, Natural Resources Research, DOI:10.1007/s11053-017-9336-5.

Pell, R, Wall, F, Yan, X, Bailey, G. 2017. Response to 'Assessing the energy requirements and global warming potential of the production of rare earth elements', Journal of Cleaner Production, DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.059.

Wall F, Rollat A, Pell R. 2017. Responsible sourcing of critical metals, Elements, 13, 313–318


Broom-Fendley, S, Brady, A E, Wall, F, Gunn, G and Dawes, W. 2017. REE minerals at the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi: HREE-enrichment in late-stage apatite. Ore Geology Reviews 81, 23-41

Broom-Fendley, S, Heaton, T, Wall, F and Gunn, G (2016). Tracing the fluid source of heavy REE mineralisation in carbonatites using a novel method of oxygen-isotope analysis in apatite: The example of Songwe Hill, Malawi. Chemical Geology 440, 275-287

Broom-Fendley S, Styles M T, Appleton J D, Gunn G, and Wall F. (2016) Evidence for dissolution-reprecipitation of apatite and preferential LREE mobility in carbonatite-derived late-stage hydrothermal processes, American Mineralogist, 101, 596-611

Smith M P, Moore K, Kavecsánszki D, Finch A A, Kynicky J, and Wall F. (2016). From mantle to critical zone: A review of large and giant sized deposits of the rare earth elements, Geoscience Frontiers, 7, 315-334


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